Publication Credits

Written By:

Michele L. Wagner, RN, MSN, CNRN
Department of Nursing APN, Neuroscience

Janet A. Stewart, RN, BSN, ONC
Department of Nursing, Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Karen M. Stenger, RN, MA, CCRN
Department of Nursing APN, Critical Care

In Collaboration With:

Joseph J. Chen, MD
Clinical Associate Professor
Staff Physiatrist and Medical Director
of Rehabilitation Services
Department of Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation

Joseph D. Smucker, MD
Assistant Professor, Spine Surgery
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Melanie J. House, MPT, NCS
Senior Physical Therapist, Rehabilitation Therapies

Kimberly K. Hopwood, OTR/L
Senior Occupational Therapist, Rehabilitation Therapies

Angela L. Care, BSW
Social Worker II, Social Services


Lori Gingerich Roetlin, LISW, MSSA
Neuroscience Social Work Specialist

Megan Farnsworth, RN, MNHP
Department of Nursing
Intensive and Specialty Services Nursing Division

Judy A. Swafford, RN, BA, ONC
Department of Nursing
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Neil A. Segal, MD
Assistant Professor and Staff Physiatrist
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Loretta Popp, Design Artist
Graphics Department
Center for Disabilities and Development


The information contained in this publication is provided for the purpose of educating and informing readers, and it does not constitute medical diagnosis or treatment advice. Readers are advised to contact a licensed independent practitioner for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

Copyright 2007 by the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, First Edition. Reproduction prohibited without written permission from the authors. Send requests to Amy Mikelson, Center for Disabilities and Development, 100 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242-1011; call 319-356-1314; email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Publication of this educational booklet is made possible in part by the generous support of the following sponsors:

  • Metronic
  • Stryker
  • DePuy Spine
  • Fraternal Order of Eagles